Emerging governances, different perspectives


  • Tony Kinder Tampere University
  • Frédérique Six Vrije Universiteit
  • Jari Stenvall Tampere University
  • Antti Talonen University of Helsinki
  • Ally Memon Northumbria University


Linking with the debate around new public management (NPM) and new public governance (NPG), the article studies different conceptual approaches for explaining dynamically changing systems that locally deliver integrated health and social care. To make our case, we analyse three health and social care ecosystems: London in England, Tampere in Finland, and West Lothian in Scotland. We argue (a) that network analysis is suited to NPM striving for efficiency, rather than NPGs seeking service effectiveness and innovation; (b) that classifying service systems as networks or ecosystem has important strategic and management implications; and (c) from examining three self-classified local public service ecosystems, that these distinctions are misunderstood in practice. 

Author Biographies

Tony Kinder, Tampere University


Frédérique Six, Vrije Universiteit

Associate Professor

Jari Stenvall, Tampere University


Antti Talonen, University of Helsinki

Postdoctoral Researcher

Ally Memon, Northumbria University

Senior Lecturer


Allen CR and Holling CS (Eds.), 2008, Discontinuities in Ecosystems and other Complex Systems, Columbia University Press, NY.

Ansell C and Torfing J, 2010, Handbook on Theories of Governance, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, UK.

Arthur WB, 1994, Increasing Returns and Path Dependency in the Economy, University of Michigan Press, An Arbor, MI.

Arthur WB, 2009, The Nature of Technology: What It Is and How It Evolves, Free Press, NY.

Arthur WB, 2010, Complexity, the Santa Fe Approach, and Nonequilibrium Economics, History of Economic Ideas, 18:2, 149-166.

Arthur WB, 2015, Complexity and the Economy, OUP, Oxford.

Author-A, Author-B, Author-C and Author-D, 2019, Governance, trust and learning, submitted to International Review of Administrative Sciences, Tampere University, School of Management, Working Paper.

Beinhocker ED, 2006, The Origins of Wealth: Evolution, Complexity and the Radical Remaking of Economics, Harvard Business School Press, Boston.

Bernstein B, 2000, Pedagogy, Symbolic Control and Identity: Theory, Research Critique, Rowman and Littlefield, Lanham.

Bommert, B. (2010). Collaborative innovation in the public sector. International public management review, 11(1), 15-33.

Chalmers AF, 1994, What Is This Thing Called Science? Open University Press, Milton Keynes.

Czarniawska-Joerges B, 1992, Exploring Complex Organisations, Sage, London.

Daniels H, 2001, Vygotsky and pedagogy, Routledge-Falmer, Abingdon.

Daniels H, 2012, Vygotsky and Sociology, Routledge, London.

Dennett D, 1991, Consciousness explained, Little, Brown Boston, MA.

Dewey J, 1939, Freedom and Culture, Greenwood Press, NY.

Engeström Y, Miettinen R and Punamaki RL, 1999, Perspectives on Activity Theory, CUP, Cambridge.

Fonseca J, 2002, Complexity and Innovation in Organisations, Routledge, London.

Freeman C, 1982, Economic of Industrial Innovation, (2nd Edition), Pinter, London.

Gell-Mann M, 1995, The Quark and the Jaguar: Adventures in the Simple and the Complex, Abacus, London.

Griffin D, 2002, The Emergence of Leadership, Routledge, London.

Hampshire S, 1960, Thought and Action, Chatto and Windus, London.

Hansen H-t, Lundberg K and Syltevik LJ, 2016, Digitalization, Street-Level Bureaucracy and Welfare Users’ Experiences, Social Policy & Administration, 52, 67-90.

Hartley J, Sørensen E and Torfing J, 2013, Collaborative innovation: A viable alternative to market-competition and organizational entrepreneurship, Public Administration Review, 73:6, 821–830.

Hasan R, 2005, Semiotic mediation, language and society: three exotripic theories: Vygotsky, Halliday and Bernstein, in Webster JJ (Ed.), Language, society and consciousness, Equinox, London.

Huxham C, 1993, Pursuing Collaborative Advantage, The Journal of Operational Research Society, 44:6, 599-611.

Huxham C, 2003, Theorizing collaborative advantage, Public Management Review 5:3, 401-423.

Huxham C, 2010, Collaborative Capacity: An intra-organisational perspective on collaborative advantage, Public Money & Management, July-Sept, 21-28.

Jentoft S and Chuenpagdee R, From Poverty to Wellbeing in Small-Scale Fisheries: The Governability Challenge, in Johnson, D, Acott TG, Stacey N and Urquhart J, (Eds), 2018, Social Wellbeing and the Values of Small-scale Fisheries, Springer, London.

Jessop B, 1991, Regulation Theory, Post-Fordism and the State, in Benefeld W and Holloway J (Eds.), 1991, Post-Fordism and Social Form, CSE, Macmillan, pg. 69-91.

Jessop B, 2013, Hollowing Out the "Nation-State" and Multi-Level Governance, in Kennett (Ed), A Handbook of Comparative Social Policy, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, pg.11-26.

Klijn E-H and Kippenjan J, 2012, Governance network theory: past, present and future, Policy & Politics, 40:4, 587-606.

Klijn E-H and Koppenjan JFM, 2014, Complexity in governance network theory, Complexity, Governance & Networks, 1:1, 61-70.

Klijn E-H, 1996, Analysing and Managing Policy Processes in Complex Networks: A Theoretical Examination of the Concept Policy Network and its Problems, Administration and Society, 28:1 90–119.

Klijn E-H, 1997, Policy Networks: An Overview, in Kickert WJM, Klijn E-H and Koppenjan JFM (Eds), Managing Complex Networks. Sage, London.

Klijn E-H, 2008, Complexity theory and public administration: What’s new? Public Management Review, 10:3, 299-317.

Kooiman J (Ed), 1993, Modern Governance: New Government-Society Interactions, Sage, London.

Kooiman J and Jentoft S, 2009, Meta-governance: values, norms and principles, and the making of hard choices, Public Administration, 87:4, 818-836.

Kooiman J, 1999, Social-Political Governance, Public Management, Public Management: An International Journal of Research and Theory, 1:1, 67-92.

Kooiman J, 2003, Governing as Governance, Sage, London.

Kooiman J, Bavinck M, Jentoft S and Pullin R (Eds), 2005, Fish for Life: Interactive governance for Fisheries, Amsterdam University Press, Amsterdam.

Kooiman J, van Vliet M and Jentoft S. (Eds.), 1999, Creative Governance: Opportunities for Fisheries in Europe, Aldershot: Ashgate.

Levykh MG, 2008, The affective establishment and maintenance of Vygotsky’s zone of proximal development, Educational Theory, 58:1, 83-101.

Lipsky M, 1980, Street-level Bureaucracy: Dilemmas of the individual in Public Services, Sage, NY.

Longo F and Notarnicola E, 2018, Home care for the elderly in Sweden, Germany and Italy: A case of multi-level governance strategy-making, Social Policy & Administration, 52, 1303-1316.

Mahn H and John-Steiner V (Eds.), The Gift of Confidence: A Vygotskian View of Emotions,’ in Wells G and Claxton G (Eds.), 2002, Learning for Life in the Twenty-First Century: Sociocultural Perspectives on the Future of Education, Blackwell, Oxford.

Malbon E, Carey G, and Reeders D, 2019, Mixed accountability within new public governance: The case of a personalized welfare scheme in early implementation, Social Policy & Administration, 53, 156-169.

Mead GH, 1934 (1962), Mind, Self and Society, Works of GH Mead, Volume-1, (Edited Morris CS), University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL.

Mesle CR, 2008, Process-Relational Philosophy, Templeton Press, West Conshohocken, PA.

Morin E, 1986, Method (accessed 210519) available at https://monoskop.org/images/a/ad/Morin_Edgar_Method_vol_1_The_Nature_of_Nature.pdf,

Morin E, 2008, On Complexity, Hampton Press, NJ.

Murdock, A., & Barber, S. (2017). IPMR AND PUBLIC MANAGEMENT: THE NEXT 18 YEARS?. International Public Management Review, 18(1), 1-20.

Naidoo, V. (2015). Changing Conceptions of Public ‘Management’and Public Sector Reform in South Africa. International Public Management Review, 16(1), 23-42.

Nooteboom B and Six FE, 2003, The Trust Process in Organisations, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham.

Osborne D and Gaebler T, 1993, Reinventing Government, Penguin, London.

Osborne SP, 2010a, The (New) Public Governance: a suitable case for treatment, in Osborne SP, 2010, The New Public Governance? Routledge, London, Cpt. 1.

Polanyi M, 1958, Personal Knowledge, Routledge & Kegan Paul, London.

Rhodes RAW, 1990, Policy Networks: A British Perspective, Journal of Theoretical Politics, 2:3, 293-317.

Rhodes RAW, 1992, New directions in the study of policy networks, European Journal of Political Research, 21:1-2, 181-205.

Rhodes RAW, 1997, Understanding Governance: Policy Networks, Governance, Reflexivity and Accountability, OUP, Buckingham.

Senghaas M, Freier C, Kupka P, 2019, Practices of activation in frontline interactions: Coercion, persuasion, and the role of trust in activation policies in Germany, Social Policy & Administration, 53, 613-626.

Six FE, 2005, The Trouble with Trust – The Dynamics of Interpersonal Trust Building, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham.

Six FE, 2018, Trust in public professionals and their professions, in Sitkin, S., R. Searle and A.M. Nienaber, Compendium on Trust, Routledge, London.

Sørensen E and Torfing J, 2005, The Democratic Anchorage of Governance Networks, Scandinavian Political Studies 28(3): 195–218.

Stacey RD, 2001, Complex Responsive Processes in Organisations: Learning and knowledge creation, Routledge, London.

Torfing J and Triantafillou P (Eds), 2012 Enhancing Public Innovation by Transforming Public Governance, CUP, Cambridge.

Torfing J, 2016, Collaborative Governance in the Public Sector, Georgetown University Press, Washington, DC.

Torfing J, Peters B, Pierre J and Sørensen E, 2014, Interactive Governance: Enhancing the Paradigm, OUP, Oxford.

van Buuren, A., Buijs, J. M., & Slob, A. (2010). Consolidating Governance Capacity in Complex Networks: Changing Perceptions. International Public Management Review, 11(1), 34-51.

Waldrop MM, 1992, Complexity: The Emerging Science at the Edge of Order and Chaos, Simon & Schuster, London.

Weaver B, 2019, Coproduction, governance and practice: The dynamics and effects of User Voice Prison Councils, Social Policy & Administration, 53, 249-264.

Weibel A and Six FE, 2013, Trust and control: the role of intrinsic motivation, in Bachmann R and Zaheer A (Eds.), Handbook of advances in trust research (pp. 57-81). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.

Weibel A, Den Hartog DN, Gillespie N, Searle R, Six FE and Skinner D, 2016, How do controls impact employee trust in the employer? Human Resource Management, 55:3, 437-462.

Weick K, 1979, The Social Psychology of Organisations, Random House, New York.

Wertsch JV, del Rio P and Alvarez A, 1995, Socio-cultural studies: history, action and mediation, in Wertsch JV, del Rio P and Alvarez A, Socio-cultural studies of the mind, CUP, Cambridge.

Whitehead AN,1929 (1978), Process and Reality, (edited by Griffin DR and Sherburne DW), Free Press, NY.

Williamson OE, 1995, Organization Theory: From Chester Barnard to the Present and Beyond, OUP, NY.




How to Cite

Kinder, T., Six, F., Stenvall, J., Talonen, A., & Memon, A. (2021). Emerging governances, different perspectives. International Public Management Review, 21(1), 5–26. Retrieved from https://ipmr.net/index.php/ipmr/article/view/419